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Directory of Evidence-Based Parenting Programs

This directory provides an overview of currently available evidence-based parenting programs and is intended to serve the needs of parent educators, family practitioners, program planners and others looking for effective programs to implement with parents and families. Evidenced-based parenting programs (a subset of the larger body of evidence-based programs) have been specifically developed to strengthen families, prevent youth and family problems and promote family and child well-being. These programs have been rigorously evaluated and have demonstrated scientific evidence of improving child, parent and/or family functioning.

Why use evidence-based programs?

There are numerous advantages to adopting and implementing evidence-based parenting programs (EBPPs). First and most importantly, EBPPs, when implemented appropriately, have been certified to have a high likelihood of producing positive impacts on the issues they target. From a fiscal standpoint, the adoption and implementation of evidence-based parenting programs can help organizations obtain and sustain program funding. Not only do funders increasingly want to invest their dollars in programs that have scientifically demonstrated their effectiveness, but the public also wants to know that tax dollars are being spent on programs and services that actually work. A related advantage to implementing EBPPs is that they are more likely than other programs to have undergone analyses on their costs and benefits. Increasingly, information is available to indicate that the financial benefits of an EBPP outweigh its costs. This information can be very influential in an era where accountability and economic factors often drive public policy and funding decisions. An additional advantage to implementing EBPPs is the efficiency associated with their use. Instead of putting resources toward program development, organizations can select from the growing number of EBPPs, which are known to be effective and often offer well-packaged program materials, staff training, and technical assistance. To this end, EBPPs enable limited resources to be used wisely.

Criteria for Inclusion

In order for a program to be included in this directory it had to meet several criteria. At a minimum, a significant component of the program had to focus on parent education or parent training and the program must have met accepted empirical standards for an evidence-based program. In addition, the program must have been listed on at least one or more national registries of evidence-based programs.

The registries from which these programs have been selected include:

The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare (CEBC) www.cebc4cw.org

Center for the Study of Prevention of Violence: Blueprints for Violence Prevention (Blueprints) http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/index.html

Helping America’s Youth (HAY) http://guide.helpingamericasyouth.gov/programtool.cfm

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Model Programs Guide (OJJDP) http://www.dsgonline.com/mpg_index.htm

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (SAMHSA) http://nrepp.samhsa.gov/
While we have made every effort to include all eligible programs, new evidence-based programs are being developed and recognized on a regular basis. As a result, it is inevitable that our list will be incomplete and that there are evidence-based parenting programs that we have neglected to include. If you are aware of an EBPP that we do not list but you believe should be included, please email us at sasmall@wisc.edu.

Selecting an Appropriate Program

Knowing that a program has undergone rigorous testing and evaluation can reassure potential program sponsors that the program is likely to be effective under the right conditions and with the appropriate audience. However, knowing which program is the “right” one for a particular setting and audience is not always easy to determine. There are a number of critical factors that planners need to consider when selecting a program for their organization and audience. For those interested in guidelines to assist in the task of selecting an appropriate evidence-based parenting please see the What Works Research to Action Brief: “Guidelines for Selecting an Evidence Based Program”.

The appearance of a program in multiple registries can provide added strength to the claim of effectiveness. This can be particularly relevant for programs assessed by some registries to have less rigorous evaluative designs. There are, however, several excellent programs listed in the directory that appear in only one registry.

Using the Directory

This directory is organized into two sections. The first section includes programs where parent education/training is the sole focus of the program. Programs in this section are further divided into two additional categories: programs designed to serve a single age range and programs designed to accommodate multiple age ranges. Some programs have been specifically developed for a particular stage of childhood such as early adolescence or the preschool years. Other programs have expanded beyond one stage of childhood and include curriculum components that address parenting issue at more than one developmental stage.

Key to Estimated Program Costs

LOW: 0 - $500
MEDIUM: $500 - $2000
HIGH: Over $2000

Actual program costs can vary widely from these estimates due to yearly cost increases, materials, staff training needs and regional cost differences. Moreover, initial start-up expenses are often higher than costs to maintain the program over time.
The second section of this directory consists of programs where parent education/training is one component of a broader multi-component program. Addressing the multiple settings in which an individual spends time and enhancing the connections between them can substantially increase the chances of a program’s success. Consequently, multi-component programs which reinforce comparable messages and behaviors at school, in the family and/or in the community not only have the highest short term success rates but are more likely to facilitate long term change. Multi-component programs are more challenging to implement because they usually require coordination and administration by multiple service providers, but the results are likely to be well worth the effort.

For the majority of the multi-component programs listed, the parenting component must be used in combination with other program components in order to insure effectiveness. However, there are some exceptions. When choosing a multi-component program it is important to look carefully at the program description and evaluation results to determine whether it is appropriate to use the parenting component of the program alone.

The following list is divided into two broad approaches to parenting programming: Parenting programs where parent training/education is the sole component of the program and programs where parent training/education is part of a multi-component program. Each of these approaches has strengths and weakness and needs to be carefully matched to intended outcome or usefulness of the program.

Click on the following link for the Directory in PDF format. 
 Directory of Evidence-Based Parenting Programs pdf--253kb
 

Section 1: The programs listed in this section focus solely on parent training/education for parents and their children within a single age range.

Programs Targeting Prenatal to Preschool Aged Children and Parents


Nurse-Family Partnership

Targeted Age of Child: Prenatal to age 2

Targeted Audience: First-time pregnant low-income mothers of any age.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for effectiveness with African-American and Caucasian mothers
  • Evaluated for effectiveness in urban and rural settings

Program Description: This program strives to improve overall family functioning through improved prenatal health resulting in healthier pregnancies and infants, improved care to infants and toddlers in the interest of optimal health and development and improved personal, health and vocational development on the part of parent(s).

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved prenatal health of mother and decreased preterm deliveries
  • Reduction in child abuse and neglect
  • Reduction in subsequent pregnancies
  • Reduction in maternal dependence on AFDC
  • Reduction in maternal ATOD abuse related problems
  • Reduction in maternal arrests
  • Reduction in children’s arrests and convictions, number of sexual partners and cigarette use at age 15

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • The program extends from mid-pregnancy until the child is two years old
  • Ideally, visits begin early in the second trimester of pregnancy
  • Visits are scheduled weekly for the first month after enrollment and then bi-weekly until the baby is born
  • Visits are weekly for the first six weeks after the baby is born, and then bi-weekly until the baby is 20 months
  • The last four visits are monthly until the child is two years old

Staffing: Home visits must be conducted by nurses for the program to be effective.

Cost: High

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY, Blueprints

Contact Information:

Nurse-Family Partnership
National Office
1900 Grant Street, Suite 400
Denver, CO 80203
Phone: 866-864-5226
Fax: 303-327-4260
Email: info@nursefamilypartnership.org
Web site: www.nursefamilypartnership.org/

Parents as Teachers

Targeted Age of Child: 0 to 5

Targeted Audience: Primarily, but not limited to, low-income at-risk families

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for effectiveness with African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic families
  • Implemented among specialized populations: children with special needs, reservation based Native Americans, homeless families, teen parents, military-based families and incarcerated parents
  • Implemented in rural and urban settings
  • Implemented for use within center-based child care settings

Program Description: This program seeks to promote school readiness by working with parents and their children birth through age 5. It includes in-home visits by certified parent educators, parent group meetings, periodic developmental screenings and links to community resources.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • More advanced physical, cognitive and emotional development for children
  • Increased parental knowledge of child development
  • Increased use of positive parenting practices
  • Increased parental involvement in child's schooling
  • Some evidence for decreased welfare dependence
  • Some evidence for reduced incidence of child abuse

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Monthly in-home visits
  • Yearly developmental, vision and hearing screenings for children
  • Monthly group meetings led by parent educators
  • Effort to connect family with community resources

Staffing: Certified parent educators

Cost: N/A

Registry Listings: OJJDP

Contact Information:

Parents as Teachers National Center
2228 Ball Drive
St. Louis, Missouri 63146
United States
Phone 314-432-4330 
Fax 314-432-8963
Email: info@patnc.org
Web site: http://www.parentsasteachers.org

Parent Child Development Center

Targeted Age of Child: 0-3

Targeted Audience: Low-income families where mothers are the primary caregiver

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic families
  • Evaluated as effective with both genders
  • Evaluated for low-income families

Program Description: This program is designed to provide full range of personal and parenting support to low-income mothers including knowledge of child development, improved family communication and interaction skills, home management training, exposure to community resources and continuing education classes. External supports are provided in the form of transportation to classes, some meals, health/social services, programs for siblings and small stipend.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved interaction and communication between parent and child
  • Increased use of positive disciplinary techniques
  • Increased IQ and cognitive ability among preschool children
  • Increased school success for primary children
  • Decreased externalizing behavior among all children

Number of Sessions and format:

  • Conducted over two years
  • Includes 25 home visits
  • Weekly center activities
  • Structured play sessions that are videotaped and analyzed
  • Component for fathers
  • Family workshops
  • ESL services
  • Nursery school component

Staffing: Use of paraprofessional parent educators and visiting nurses

Cost: High

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Dale L. Johnson, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-5341
Phone: 505-758-7962
Fax: 713-743-8633
Email: dljohnson@uh.edu


Programs Targeting School Aged Children and Parents


Parenting Through Change

Targeted Age of Child: 6-12

Targeted Audience: Recently separated single mothers whose children are at risk of internalizing and externalizing conduct disorders

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for Caucasian and Hispanic Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders

Program Description: This program is designed to prevent internalizing (e.g. anxiety, depression) and externalizing behaviors (e.g. delinquency, violence) and promote healthy child adjustment by teaching parents effective parenting practices including encouragement, limit setting, problem-solving, monitoring and positive involvement. The program incorporates the demonstration of strategies to decrease coercive exchanges with children and teach use of positive reinforcement to promote prosocial behavior.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Short and long term reductions in internalizing behaviors
  • Decreased externalizing and delinquency behaviors
  • Improved school functioning

Number of Sessions and Format: 14 weekly group sessions

Staffing: Session conducted by two trained group facilitators

Cost: High

Registry Listings: SAMHSA

Contact Information:

Marion S. Forgatch, Ph.D.
Executive Director
Implementation Sciences International, Inc.
2852 Willamette Street, #172
Eugene, OR 97405
Phone: 541-485-2711
Fax: 541-338-9963
Email: marionf@oslc.org

Raising a Thinking Child

Targeted Age of Child: 4-7

Targeted Audience: Any family with children in this age range

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic, American Indian and Asian Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective within urban settings
  • Evaluated as effective across socio-economic settings

Program Description: The program is designed to teach parents to use interpersonal cognitive problem-solving skills to facilitate the growth of thinking skills in children and to increase parent sensitivity to their own as well as their children’s feelings.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Enhanced Interpersonal and problem solving skills for children
  • Decreased behavioral problems
  • Increased parental effectiveness and sensitivity

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 10-12 consecutive weekly sessions
  • Can be adapted to a minimum of six weeks

Staffing: Leadership by trained parent educators

Cost: Medium

Registry Listings: OJJDP

Contact Information:

Myrna B. Shure, Ph.D.
Drexel University, Dept. of Psychology
245 North 15th Street, Mail Stop 626
Philadelphia, PA 19102
Phone: 215-762-7205
Fax: 215-762-8625
Email: mshure@drexel.edu


Programs Targeting Pre-teen and Teenage Children and Parents


Creating Lasting Connections

Targeted Age of Child: 9-17

Targeted Audience: Youth and families in high risk environments

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for Caucasian and African-American youth
  • Evaluated for male and female participants
  • Evaluated in urban, rural and suburban settings
  • Implemented with Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, American Indian and Asian youth

Program Description: This program emphasizes family strengthening in an effort to increase both parent and child resiliency, reduce adolescent ATOD use and provide on-going community support to youth and families.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved youth social and refusal skills
  • Delayed onset and decreased ATOD use by youth
  • Improved family management and communication skills
  • Improved parental knowledge of ATOD abuse
  • Improved use of community resources by both parents and children

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 15-18 weekly Parent Sessions
  • 15-18 Youth Sessions
  • Optional 2-3 Combined Sessions
  • 6 month follow-up case management services
  • Designed for use through an existing community system (churches, schools, community centers) which can provide significant contact with parents and youth as well as links to other human service providers and community resources

Staffing:

  • 2 part-time facilitators for parent sessions
  • 2 part-time facilitators for youth sessions
  • Formal training by program developer is highly recommended but not required

Cost: High

Registry Listings: SAMHSA, OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Ted N. Strader
COPES, Inc.
845 Barret Avenue
Louisville, KY 40204
Phone: 502-583-6820
Fax: 502-583-6832
Email: tstrader@sprynet.com
Web site: http://www.copes.org

Families in Action

Targeted Age of Child: 11-14

Targeted Audience: All families with children in early adolescence or entering middle school

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for Caucasian youth
  • Evaluated for rural settings
  • Identified stronger effects for boys than for girls

Program Description: This is a family based substance abuse prevention program which emphasizes general life and social resistance skills.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Higher family cohesion and reduced conflict
  • Youth increased school attachment and self-esteem
  • Youth demonstrated stronger belief that alcohol should be consumed at older age
  • Parents demonstrated stronger belief that alcohol should not be used by minors

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 2 two-hour weekly sessions for groups of 5 to 12 families
  • Program is video based
  • Parents and teens meet separately and come together for closing
  • Typically held in school settings

Staffing: No specific training or staffing requirements

Cost: Medium

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Michael H. Popkin, Ph.D.
Active Parenting Publishers
1955 Vaughn Road NW, Suite 108
Kennesaw, GA 30144-7808
Phone: 800-825-0060
Fax: 770-429-0334
Email: cservice@activeparenting.com
Web site: http://www.activeparenting.com/xfia.htm

Family Matters

Targeted Age of Child: 12-14

Targeted Audience: All families with children in early adolescence

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for Hispanic, Caucasian, American Indian, Asian and Caucasian youth
  • Evaluated for male and female youth
  • Evaluated in rural, suburban and urban settings

Program Description: This is a family-directed program administered through mailed booklets and designed to reduce ATOD use. The program is designed to enhance general parenting skills applicable for this age group as well as family attributes that contribute to reduced substance use.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reduced adolescent cigarette smoking
  • Reduced adolescent alcohol use
  • Possible improvements in parenting skills and parent-child relationship

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Each of four booklets is mailed to family upon completion of previous book
  • After each booklet is mailed, the family is given a minimum of two weeks to read the booklet and carry out the activities
  • The two week period is followed by telephone contact from a health educator to the primary parent. The health educator encourages booklet completion and answers questions
  • The subsequent book is sent when the health educator deems the previous booklet has been completed

Staffing:

  • Health educator
  • Can come from a sponsoring agency or from the surrounding community
  • Can be paid staff or volunteer

Cost: Low - Program booklets, Health Educator Training Manual, recruitment and program evaluation materials are all available at no cost from the program website.

Registry Listings: SAMHSA, OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Karl E. Bauman, Ph.D.
116 Nolen Lane
Chapel Hill, NC 27516
Email: kbauman@mindspring.com
Web site: http://familymatters.sph.unc.edu/introduction.htm

Guiding Good Choices

Targeted Age of Child: 9-14

Targeted Audience: All families with children in this age range

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for Hispanic, African-American, Samoan, American Indian and Caucasian youth and families
  • Evaluated for males and females
  • Evaluated for urban settings
  • Implemented within rural and suburban settings

Program Description: This program was designed to provide parents with the necessary knowledge and skills to guide children through early adolescence in an effort to promote drug resistance and prevent anti-social behavior.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Delayed initiation and reduced lifetime ATOD use by youth
  • Increased drug resistance skills and anti-social behavior prevention for youth
  • Decreased self-reported depressive symptoms among youth
  • Decreased negative family interactions
  • Increased proactive family communication and family bonding
  • Clearer behavioral expectations and substance use prevention related communication from parents

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Five sessions total: 4 parent only, 1 parent and child
  • This is a multi-media, interactive family competency training program including video-based vignettes and opportunities for skills practice
  • Take home guide includes family activities, discussion topics, skill-building exercises and positive parenting information

Staffing:

  • Can be staffed by anyone comfortable with workshop leadership
  • Suggested leaders include parent educators and teachers

Cost: Medium

Registry listings: SAHMSA, OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Prevention Science Customer Center Service Representative
Channing Bete Company
One Community Place
South Deerfield, MA 01373
Phone: 800-477-4776
Fax: 800-499-6464
Email: custsvcs@channing-bete.com
Web site: http://www.channing-bete.com/prevention-programs/guiding-good-choices

Multidimensional Family Therapy

Targeted Age of Child: 11-18

Targeted Audience: Adolescents with drug and behavior problems and their families.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for Hispanic, African-American and Caucasian youth
  • Evaluated primarily for males
  • Evaluated for youth from urban settings

Program Description: This program seeks to reduce or eliminate adolescents' substance abuse and other problem behavior, while improving the overall functioning of their families. The program strives to improve adolescent functioning within peer groups, school and the family. It simultaneously strives to facilitate parental commitment and investment in the adolescent in an effort to improve the overall relationship and communication between parent and child.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reduced substance abuse and behavior problems among youth
  • Increased self-concept, school bonding and grade point average for youth
  • Decrease in youth association with anti-social peers
  • Increased family competence and cohesion

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 12 weekly Sessions plus phone calls and contact with school and salient community members/organizations
  • Therapists work with family members individually and as a group
  • Although certain aspects of treatment are common to all families some aspects and approaches are individualized

Staffing: Master's level therapist

Cost: High

Registry Listings: OJJDP, SAMHSA

Contact Information:

Howard A. Liddle
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
Treatment Research on Adolescent Drug Abuse
University of Miami
School of Medical Center
1400 10th Avenue NW, 11th Floor, Mail Stop M-711
Miami, FL 33136
Phone: 305-243-6434
Fax: 305-243-3651
Email: hliddle@med.miami.edu
Web site: http://www.hhs.gov/ophs/

Stars (Start Taking Alcohol Risks Seriously) for Families

Targeted Age of Child: 11-15

Target Audience: Youth in this age range and their families

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with Caucasian and African-American youth
  • Evaluated as effective within urban, suburban and rural settings
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders

Program Description: The goal of the program is to motivate youth to postpone alcohol use until adulthood.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reduced alcohol use among youth

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • The program has three phases including:
  1. Annual 20 minute health care consultation from provider (nurse, counselor, social worker) on how to avoid alcohol use, which is designed to reach youth at specific stages of readiness for change
  2. 8 sets of Key Fact postcards mailed to parents at a rate of 2 per week for 4 weeks. Postcards guide parents in talking to children about alcohol avoidance
  3. 4 Weekly Family Take-Home Lessons to be completed with child and returned

Staffing: Trained health care provider to provide annual consultation.

Cost: Low

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Paula Jones
NIMCO, Inc.
102 Highway 81 North, P.O. Box 9
Calhoun, KY 42327-0009
Phone: 800-962-6662
Email: Paula@nimcoinc.com
Web site: http://www.nimcoinc.com/

Strengthening Families 10-14

Targeted Age of Child: 10-14

Targeted Audience: All Families with children in this age range

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with Caucasian, African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Hispanic and Australian and Canadian Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective in urban, suburban and rural settings

Program Description: This program is designed to improve nurturing and child management skills on the part of parents while also enhancing interpersonal and personal competencies for youth.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reduction in substance use in adolescence
  • Reduction in behavior problems in adolescence
  • Increased peer resistance
  • Increased support, affection, effectiveness from parents toward youth

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 7 two hour weekly sessions
  • 4 booster sessions from 6 months to 1 year post program
  • Parents and youth attend separate skill-building sessions for the 1st hour, engage in supervised family activities for the 2nd hour

Staffing: Sessions led by trained group leaders

Cost: High

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Catherine Webb
Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute
Iowa State University
2625 North Loop Drive, Suite 500
Ames, Iowa 50010
Phone: 515-294-1426
Fax: 515-294-3613
Email: cwebb@iastate.edu
Web site: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/sfpII

Parenting With Love And Limits

Targeted Age of Child: 10-18

Targeted Audience: Pre-teens and teens with identified/diagnosed issues with aggression/violence, conduct disorder, delinquency, and/or substance abuse.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated for effectiveness with African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic Families
  • Evaluated for effectiveness in urban, suburban and rural settings
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders

Program Description: Using a combination of group and family therapy this program strives to rejuvenate the child/parent relationship by teaching skills to re-build and restructure a mutually nurturing relationship while simultaneously providing the parent(s) with tools and strategies to set limits, maintain discipline and ensure the safety and well being of their adolescent child(ren).

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reduced adolescent substance use
  • Reduced adolescent aggressive behaviors
  • Reduced adolescent depression
  • Decreased conduct disorder among children
  • Reduced adolescent attention deficit disorder issues
  • Reduced externalizing problems
  • Reduced recidivism
  • Improved adolescent-parent communication
  • Decreased mothers' negative perceptions and attitudes toward their adolescent

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Six weekly two hour classes for up to six families of parents, teens and sometimes siblings or extended family
  • First hour consists of group therapy with parents and teens together
  • Second hour consists of parent and teen breakout out groups
  • Three to twenty one to two hour individual family therapy sessions that run concurrently with the group sessions though they may extend beyond the group therapy period

Staffing: Group facilitators must be master's level certified therapists. Case loads should consist of 10-20 families for high risk youth or 25-35 families for low to medium risk youth. Co-facilitators may be bachelor's level in a human services or therapy related field, however they must be supervised by a master's level therapist.

Cost: High

Registry Listings: SAMHSA, OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Diana L. Bala
Marketing Director
Savannah Family Institute, Inc.
P.O. Box 30381
Savannah, GA 31410
Phone: 800-735-9525
Fax: 912-727-2847
Email: diana@gopll.com
Web site: http://www.gopll.com


Section 2: The programs in this section have multiple versions where each version targets families and their children within a different age range.


Nurturing Parenting

Targeted Age of Child: Programs for birth to 5, children 5-11, teens 12-18

Targeted Audience: Families at risk for abuse and neglect

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with Caucasian and Hispanic Families
  • Implemented with African-American and Hmong Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders

Program Description: The purpose of this program is to teach parents age appropriate developmental expectations and nurturing non-violent discipline strategies as well as to develop empathy, self-esteem, empowerment and positive patterns of communication for both parents and children.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Decreased family violence
  • Increased accuracy of developmentally appropriate expectations
  • Improved problem solving
  • Improved positive parenting skills
  • Improved communication
  • Increased family bonding

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 12-48 Sessions offered in both home-based and group-based formats
  • Programs for children 5 and older include both parent and child components meeting concurrently in separate groups

Staffing: Trained facilitator

Cost: Medium

Registry Listings: OJJDP, CEBC

Contact Information:

Dr. Stephen J. Bavolek
Family Development Resources, Inc.
3070 Rasmussen Road, Suite 190
Park City, UT 84098
Phone: 800-688-5822
Fax: 435-649-9599
Web site: http://www.nurturingparenting.com/

Parenting Wisely

Targeted Age of Child: Versions for elementary (6-11), early adolescence (12-14) and adolescence (15-18)

Targeted Audience: Hard to reach at-risk families

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic and Asian Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated in urban, suburban and rural settings
  • Evaluated for low-income families

Program Description: This self-administered interactive computer based program is designed to improve the parent-child relationship, enhance family communication, reduce behavior problems, and build family unity.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Increased knowledge and use of good parenting skills
  • Decreased child problem behaviors
  • Improved problem solving
  • Reduced family violence

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Can be used as a stand-alone family intervention or to compliment other interventions
  • 9 interactive computer tutorials can be completed in 2 to 3 hours

Staffing: Anyone who can use a computer

Other: Program includes family workbook. Video tapes and DVDs can be purchased for use within other parenting education programs, as well.

Cost: Medium

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY, CEBC

Contact Information:

Donald A. Gordon, Ph.D.
Family Works, Inc.
34 West State Street, Room 135B, Unit 8
Athens, OH 45701-3751
Phone: 866-234-9473
Fax: 541-482-2829
Email: familyworks@familyworksinc.com
Web site: http://www.familyworksinc.com

Strengthening Families

Targeted Age of Child: Separate Versions for 3-5, 6-12, 10-14 (also see above), 13-17

Targeted Audience: All parents with children in the correct age range

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with Caucasian, African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Hispanic and Australian and Canadian Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated in urban, suburban and rural settings

Program Description: This program is designed to teach and enhance parenting skills such as nurturing, rule setting, appropriate discipline, and monitoring compliance. Children are taught skills including goal setting, anger control, communication, responsible behavior, and peer resistance.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved parenting skills
  • Improved family environment
  • Increased desirable behaviors/competencies from children
  • Decreased conduct disorder among children
  • Improve protective factors
  • Decrease risk factors predictive of future problem behaviors

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 14 consecutive weekly sessions
  • 2 booster sessions from six months to one year post program
  • Each weekly skill building session includes a separate but simultaneous parent and child component followed by a joint skill practice session

Staffing: Sessions led by trained group leaders

Cost: High

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Karol Kumpfer, Ph.D.
Department of Health Promotion and Education
21901 East South Campus Drive, Room 2142
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
Phone: 801-581-7718
Fax: 801-581-5872
Email: kkumpfer@xmission.com
Web site: http://www.strengtheningfamiliesprogram.org/index.html

Triple P - Positive Parenting Program

Targeted Age of Child: Triple P has program components targeting five different developmental periods from infancy to adolescence.

Targeted Audience: The program has components appropriate for multiple levels of intervention intensity from media campaigns to universal programming. Components are designed to meet programmatic needs ranging from programming appropriate for all families to families with children at risk or exhibiting behavioral issues such as conduct disorder or oppositional children. These components can be used independently of one another.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Triple P was developed in Australia and has been evaluated as effective with audiences from Hong Kong, Germany and Australia
  • Evaluated as effective with both genders
  • Evaluated as effective in urban, suburban and rural settings

Program Description: Overall aims of the program include promotion of independent, healthy families through enhancement of parental knowledge, skills and confidence, promotion of healthy development, and social competency for children and facilitation of the development of non-violent, nurturing environments for children. The program encompasses 5 levels of increasing strength. Level 1 is designed to be a universal media based parent information strategy to build community awareness of parenting needs and resources and to encourage parental participation. Level 2 is a brief intervention (1 or 2 session) that seeks to provide anticipatory developmental guidance to parents of children with mild behavioral difficulties. Level 3 (4 sessions) focuses on children with mild to moderate behavioral difficulties and includes active parental skills training. Level 4 (8-10 sessions) targets families with children with more severe behavior difficulties and can be conduct individually, in a group setting or through a self-directed curriculum. Level 5 is designed for families where parenting difficulties are compounded by other sources of family distress (relationship conflict, depression etc.) and includes enhanced therapeutic behavioral family intervention.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Parents learn self-sufficiency
  • Improved parental sense of self-efficacy

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Level 1 — Media Campaign
  • Level 2 — 1-2 sessions
  • Level 3 — 4 Sessions
  • Level 4 — 8-10 Sessions
  • Level 5 — enhanced behavioral therapy component
  • Multiple delivery methods are appropriate depending on the level of the intervention including: media based (television series), individual, and group. This program has also displayed efficacy in a self-directed mode of delivery with and without telephone contact, depending on the audience and context.

Staffing: Staffing needs depend on level of programming: Level 1 requires media experience, Level 2 volunteer group leaders, Level 3 and 4 parent educators, Level 5 therapists

Cost: Low to Medium to High depending on the level and the number of programming materials needed.

Registry Listings: CEBC

Contact Information:

Greg Milner, Chief Operating Officer
Triple P America
Head Office:
Level 2
1201 Lincoln Street
Columbia, SC 29201
Postal Address:
PO Box 12755
Columbia, SC 29211
Phone: 803-451-2278
Fax: 803-451-2277
Email: greg@triplep.net
Web site: http://www.triplep.net


Section 3: The programs in this section consist of multiple components where parent education/training is one of those components.


Dare To Be You

Targeted Age of Child: 2-5, Follow-up Components for grades 3-5, 6-8 and HS

Targeted Audience: All Families and children, particularly those high-risk families at risk of ATOD use and future violence

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for Hispanic, Native American, African-American and Caucasian Families
  • Implemented with Asian Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective within rural, urban and suburban settings

Program Description: This program’s objectives focus on child development/advancement including resiliency skills particularly social and problem solving skills, competency development and self-responsibility as well as parent training to develop nurturing, parental self-efficacy and positive limit setting.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved sense of parental self-efficacy
  • Improved satisfaction with parental role
  • Increased use of limit setting
  • Decreased use of harsh punishment
  • Decrease or delay in onset of alcohol and tobacco use

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Family Program consists of 12 week (30 hours) workshop series and 12 hours of reinforcing workshops semi-annually
  • K-12 curriculum for schools
  • Community Leaders Guide
  • Guidance Curriculum for grades 6-8
  • Teen leadership

Staffing: This program has a 15-20 hour training which teaches community mobilization and how to use the curriculum.

Cost: High

Registry Listings: OJJDP, SAMHSA, HAY

Contact Information:

Jan Miller-Heyl, M. S.
Colorado State University
215 North Linden, Suite E
Cortez, CO 81321
Phone: 970-565-3606
Fax: 970-565-4641
Email: director@coop.ext.colostate.edu
Web site: http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/DTBY/

Early Risers "Skills for Success"

Targeted Age of Child: 6-12

Targeted Audience: Students who are at high risk for early development of conduct problems (aggressive, disruptive, non-conformist) and their parents

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for Caucasian and African-American Families
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective in urban and rural settings

Program Description: The program is designed to provide early, comprehensive and sustained intervention with child, home, and school which includes parent training, family support, educational enrichment, child social skills training, parent-school consultation and contingency management of problem behavior

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved behavioral regulation among severely aggressive children
  • Increased and sustained academic competence (behaviors) and achievement (performance)
  • Increased social competence among children
  • Increased parental investment in the child
  • More effective discipline by parent

Number of Sessions and Format:

Child Focused

  • Summer Day Camp 4 days/ week for 6 weeks incorporating social-emotional skills education, reading enrichment, and creative arts supported by behavioral management protocol
  • School Year Friendship Groups to build and reinforce skills learned over the summer
  • School support for the provision of academic and behavioral supports throughout the school year

Family Focused

  • Family Nights parent education opportunities 5 times per year with child fun activities
  • Family Support consisting of individually designed case plans

Staffing: Programming led by certified “family advocates” with a bachelor’s degree and 3-5 years experience working with families. One “family advocate” per 25 families.

Cost: High

Registry Listings: SAMHSA, OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Early Risers "Skills for Success"
Gerald J. August, Ph.D.
University of Minnesota
F256/2B West
2450 Riverside Avenue
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55454-1495
Phone: 612-273-9711
Fax: 612-273-9779
Email: augus001@tc.umn.edu
Web site: http://www.psychiatry.umn.edu/psychiatry/research/earlyrisers/home.html

Families and Schools Together (FAST)

Targeted Age of Child: 4-12

Targeted Audience: Children identified by teachers and other school professionals as exhibiting problem behaviors which put them at risk for future academic and social problems.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with Caucasian, Native American, African-American, Asian
  • Evaluated as effective with both genders
  • Evaluated as effective in rural, suburban and urban settings

Program Description: FAST emphasizes a positive non-stigmatizing approach to strengthening the whole family through empowerment of parents and the building of supportive parent-to-parent groups. FAST consists of multi-family group meetings offered in the school and conducted by school specialists in an effort to build collaboration between the school and parents. Programmatic goals include prevention of future school failure and substance use, enhancement of family functioning and stress reduction through the building of family social support structures and resource use.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reduction in child aggressive behaviors
  • Increased in child social skills
  • Increased child academic competence
  • Reduction in need for special education services
  • Increased parental involvement and volunteering in the community
  • Benefits were maintained at one year follow-up

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 8 weekly 2.5 hour meetings
  • Monthly follow-up sessions run by the families for two years
  • Parents are recruited by trained FAST recruiters (often program graduates) who visit parents in the home
  • Weekly gatherings consist of 8-12 families and are usually held in the school
  • Meetings consist of opening and closing rituals, a meal hosted by a family, structured family activities and communications, parent mutual-support time, a substance abuse education component and parent-child play therapy

Staffing: Multi-family group meetings are staffed by multiple facilitators including a school staff member such as a social worker, counselor, psychologist or principal; a parent, liaison worker or FAST facilitator; an ATOD prevention specialist; and a mental health professional. Parents are solicited by trained FAST recruiters. Families lead the follow-up sessions.

Cost: High

Registry Listings: HAY, OJJDP

Contact Information:

Families and Schools Together Inc.
2801 International Lane
Madison, WI 53704-3151
Phone: 608-663-2382
Toll Free: 888-629-2481
Fax: 608-663-2336
Email: answers@familiesandschools.org
Web site: http://familiesandschools.org

Fast Track

Targeted Age of Child: Extends from 1st through 10th grade. Intensity of the intervention increases during the transitional periods of school entry and movement from elementary to middle school.

Targeted Audience: Kindergarten children identified by their teachers and parents as having elevated conduct problems manifested by disruptive behavior and poor peer relations at school entry and who are therefore at risk for conduct disorder and other negative outcomes in adolescence, including school drop-out and delinquency.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for African-American and Caucasian children
  • Implemented with other racial/ethnic groups as well as internationally
  • Evaluated as effective for both males and females
  • Evaluated as effective in urban and rural settings

Program Description: The program is designed to target the child within many contexts and through many sources of influence over a substantial time in an effort to improve child competencies, parenting effectiveness, school context, relationship with teachers and home-school communications.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Reductions in oppositional-aggressive behaviors at home
  • Reductions in conduct problems at school
  • Reduction in need for special education services
  • Children exhibit increased social problem solving skills
  • Parents perceive improvement in their parenting behavior
  • Parents use significantly less physical punishment
  • Indications of reduced delinquency and serious conduct order in adolescence (Note: Evaluation of adolescent outcomes has not been completed.)

Number of Sessions and Format:

Elementary School Phase
  • For all Students
    • PATHS Curriculum - This school-based program is designed to be led by and to provide support for teachers. The classroom curriculum is a universal intervention designed to target emotional concepts, social understanding and self-control.
  • For identified Students
    • Parenting training - groups to develop positive family-school relationships and teach behavior management skills
    • Home visits
    • Child Social Skills Training Groups
    • Child Tutoring in reading
    • Peer Pairing - child friendship enhancement in the classroom
  • Adolescent Phase
    • Curriculum based parent-youth meetings to support the transition into middle school
    • Individualized Services as needed including: tutoring, mentoring, support for positive peer-group involvement, home visiting, family problem solving, liaisons with school and community agencies

Cost: N/A

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Mark T. Greenberg, Ph.D.
110 Henderson Building South
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802-6504
Phone: 814-863-0112
Fax: 814-865-2530
Email: prevention@psu.edu
Web site: http://www.fasttrackproject.org/

The Incredible Years

Targeted Age of Child: 2-10

Targeted Audience: All families with children in this age range. Primary emphasis is on children at-risk for or displaying conduct disorders.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, East African, Canadian, and British children
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective for rural, suburban and urban settings
  • Evaluated as effective across socioeconomic backgrounds

Program Description: Parent, school and child components are designed to work together to promote emotional and social competence and to prevent, reduce and/or treat behavioral and emotional problems in children.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Increased positive and nurturing parenting
  • Decreased harsh coercive negative parenting
  • Reduction in children’s home and school behavior problems
  • Increase in positive behaviors at home and school
  • Increased parent-child bonding
  • Increased parent bonding and involvement with teacher and school
  • Increased teacher bonding with parent
  • Increased teacher classroom management skills
  • Increased positive interaction between teacher and child

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Basic parent program - 12 weekly 2 hour sessions
  • Advanced parent program - 14-22 weekly 2 hour sessions (basic parent training is included within this number)
  • Child treatment program - 18 weekly 2 hours sessions
  • Child classroom program - twice weekly for 45 minutes
  • Teacher classroom management program - 32 hours
  • Parent Training Series includes three programs: the basic program, the advance program offered to parents who have completed the basic program and the “Supporting Your Childs Education ” Program
  • Teacher Training Series consisting of six group discussion/intervention programs for teachers, school counselors and psychologists
  • Child Training Series the Dina Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem-Solving Curriculum for classroom or counselor use and the Dina Child (Small Group) Treatment Program

Other: Components have demonstrated effectiveness with children's characteristics at home and school when used independently of one another. Parent training alone did not affect classroom management, but any combination of the other programs alone and together with parent training did. Only combined parent and teacher training resulted in parent bonding with school.

Staffing: Group leaders should have professional training and experience working with children and/or families. Group leader training highly recommended.

Cost: High

Registry Listings: SAMHSA, OJJDP, Blueprints, CEBC, HAY

Contact Information:

Lisa St. George
Administrative Director
Incredible Years
1411 Eighth Avenue, West
Seattle, WA 98119
Phone: 888-506-3562
Fax: 888-506-3562
Email: lisastgeorge@comcast.net
Web site: http://www.incredibleyears.com

Linking The Interests Of Children And Families (LIFT)

Targeted Age of Child: Primary School, Ages 6-11

Targeted Audience: For use with 1st through 5th grade students and their families who are at-risk by virtue of residing in neighborhoods with high rates of juvenile delinquency.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for Caucasian children
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective in urban settings
  • Evaluated as effective across socioeconomic backgrounds

Program Description: Prevention of conduct problems including aggression and antisocial behaviors.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Decreased physical aggression on the playground
  • Reduction in mothers’ aversive behavior
  • Increase in positive social skills
  • Improved behavior at school
  • Indication of reductions in high risk social behavior three years post intervention

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Classroom component “Child Social Skills Training”
    • 20 one hour sessions taught over 10 weeks
    • Including lecture, role play, structured group skills practice, unstructured play built around a cooperative game, skills review, daily rewards
  • Playground component “The Good Behavior Game”
    • Class subdivided into small groups for playground play where children can earn reward through demonstration of positive problem solving skills and avoidance of negative behaviors
  • Parent Management Training Component
    • 6 meetings
    • Teaching disciplinary skills and parent involvement in the school
    • Parents unable to attend a group meeting receive either a home visit or a packet of written materials which outline the missed session content

Staffing: N/A

Cost: N/A

Registry Listings: LJJDP, HAY, Blueprints

Contact Information:

John B. Reid, Ph.D.
Oregon Social Learning Center
160 East Fourth Avenue
Eugene, OR 97401
Phone: 541-485-2711
Fax: 541-485-7087
Email: Email:johnr@oslc.org
Web site: http://www.oslc.org/ (This is a website for the organization that developed the program not the program itself.)

Positive Action

Targeted Age of Child: Child (6-12), adolescent (13-18)

Targeted Audience: This program can be used universally for all children and families within the specific age range or to target at-risk children and families.

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective with African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Pacific Island children
  • Implemented with numerous racial/ethnic and international children
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective within urban, suburban and rural settings

Program Description: Positive Action, multiple components, geared for family, school and community, can be used independently or in conjunction with one another. Components seek to target family bonding and conflict, improve academic achievement and school bonding, and support avoidance of problem behaviors (e.g. substance use, violence, sexual behavior, and disruptive behaviors). The underlying premise of this program is that taking positive action results in positive feelings about oneself.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved academic achievement
  • Reductions in child violence
  • Reductions in child disruptive/problem behavior
  • Reductions in child substance use
  • Improved school attendance
  • Improved family cohesion and bonding
  • Reduced family conflict

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • 7 two hour sessions designed for children and their families or adolescents and their families
  • Children and parents meet separately for the first hour of the session and come together for the second hour
  • Program components include family kit, counselor kit, grade specific curriculum kits (K-12), counselor kit, community kit, statewide climate development kits and drug education kits
  • Program components can be used independently or in any combination with one another

Staffing: No specialized staffing or training needs

Cost: Low (for family segment alone)

Registry Listings: SAMHSA

Contact Information:

Keri Metzger
Administrative Assistant
Positive Action Inc.
Phone: 800-354-2974 Ext. 100
Fax: 208-733-1590
Email: keri@positiveaction.net
Web site: http://www.positiveaction.net

Preventative Treatment Program

Targeted Age of Child: 7-9

Targeted Audience: Aggressive males assessed as exhibiting high levels of disruptive behaviors in kindergarten

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for Caucasian children
  • Evaluated as effective for males
  • Evaluated as effective within urban settings
  • Evaluated as effective for families of low socio-economic status

Program Description: This program is designed to reduce both short and long term anti-social behavior.

Evaluated Outcomes:

Immediate Effects

  • Decreased likelihood of grade retention
  • Reduced need for special education services

Three years post-intervention

  • Decreased fighting
  • Reduced in likelihood of being classified as having serious difficulties in school
  • Increased likelihood of being characterized as well adjusted by teachers and peers
  • Reduction in minor delinquency offenses
  • Continued movement through appropriate grade level
  • Decreased need for special education services
  • Increased likelihood of prosocial friends in adolescence
  • Decreased likelihood of gang involvement in adolescence
  • Decreased ATOD use in adolescence
  • Reduction of delinquent acts during adolescence

Number of Sessions and Format:

  • Parent Training — 17 sessions
  • School Component — 19 sessions

Parent Training Component

  • Based on the model developed at the Oregon Social Learning Center, which also produced the LIFT program listed above
  • Focuses on teaching and reinforcing monitoring skills, positive reinforcement for desirable behavior, effective use of punishment and managing family crisis

School Based Component

  • Emphasis on promotion of social competence and self-control
  • Training provided in small groups composed of one or two treatment boys and three to five teacher-identified non-treatment peers likely to exert positive influence
  • Content focuses on social skills during year one and self-control skills during year two through the use of interactive learning and behavioral management techniques

Staffing: N/A

Cost: N/A

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY, Blueprints (Promising)

Contact Information:

Richard E. Tremblay, Ph.D.
University of Montreal, GRIP
3050 Edouard Monpetit
Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J7
Phone: 514-343-6963
Fax: 514-343-6962
Email: grip@umontreal.ca
Web site: http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/ (This is a web site for the organization that developed the program not for the program itself.)

Schools And Families Educating Children (SAFE CHILDREN)

Targeted Age of Child: 5 and 6 year olds

Targeted Audience: Children entering first grade who are at high risk for school failure and anti-social behavior as well as their families

Effectiveness Within Racial/Ethnic Groups, Gender and Settings:

  • Evaluated as effective for Caucasian, Hispanic and African-American children
  • Evaluated as effective for both genders
  • Evaluated as effective within urban settings
  • Evaluated as effective for families of low socio-economic status

Program Description: This program is designed to help families gain parenting skills to facilitate their children’s academic and social adjustment and growth, thereby promoting competence in those areas and reducing risk for later problem behaviors.

Evaluated Outcomes:

  • Improved academic performance
  • Increased family involvement with school and schooling
  • Increased parental monitoring
  • Improved child social competence
  • Reduction in child aggression

Number of Sessions and Format:

Family Group Meetings

  • 20 Weekly Parent Group Meetings
  • Composed of 4-6 families
  • Focused on issues of parenting, family relations and parental involvement in schooling

Academic Support

  • Tutoring for children twice weekly for 30 minutes for a total of 30 weeks
  • One on One weekly literacy tutoring using FAST Track Model
  • Literacy skills training to apply reading skills
  • Reinforce issues brought up in family meetings
  • Address ethnic identity

Staffing: Parenting Component - N/A
Tutors - undergraduate college students with 20 hours of training and weekly group supervision

Cost: N/A

Registry Listings: OJJDP, HAY

Contact Information:

Patrick Tolan, Ph.D.
Institute for Juvenile Research
1747 W. Roosevelt Road
Department of Psychiatry
Chicago, IL 60608
Phone: 312-413-1893
Fax: 312-413-1703
Email: Tolan@uic.edu
Web site: http://www.psych.uic.edu/fcrg/index.html

 
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